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bible essay questionsBible essay questions -First they appealed to logos, using statistical evidence.Rush's argument against the consumption of ardent spirits was not only scientific, but also moral.The Early American Puritan values of individual and communal salvation, hard work and the proper education of children are constant themes in Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda.Although these pamphlets followed a logos structure with logical arguments citing evidence from an established source, i.e.Scientific pamphlets also found truth in numbers, using statistics to prove that alcohol was harmful to individuals and society.The scientific pamphlets claimed proven, scientific evidence and practical advice as the basis for their arguments.This argument drew upon the American value of liberty and Puritan morals concerning individual and communal responsibility and salvation.The final part of Rush's essay dealing with morals and value judgments is based in pathos.The religious movements of the Prohibition Era promoted a back to basics approach with a clear, narrow definition of what it meant to be a faithful, observant Christian.The implication is that people who drink and drive are irresponsible and hurt others, clearly disregarding the Puritan value of concern and consideration for members of one's community.Religious leaders supporting the Temperance movement, like Bishop Nicholson, saw the fight against intemperance as a crusade, literally a holy war.Yet, the information provided in these pamphlets pointed to only one viable option: temperance. It has been repeatedly found that moderate amounts of alcohol interfere with skilled actions which depend on this co-ordination, such as rifle shooting and typing speed. Practically all the hit-run fatal accidents are caused by drunken drivers, says Frank A.The Puritans were among the original English settlers of North America; their first fleet arrived in Massachusetts in 1630.According to Morone, "Prohibition offered them [fundamentalists] their one link to national authority, the one public commitment to resisting moral decay" (337). Puritan ideology Puritan ideology emerged as a response to the chaos of the English Reformation in the sixteenth century and seventeenth centuries.Religious pamphlets evoked emotional responses by appealing to people's deeply held religious values and patriotic sentiments."The Holy Bible and Drink" presented twenty frequently asked questions about alcohol consumption from "What about 'one will not hurt you'? " (2) and a list of pro-temperance answers in the form of quotations from the bible.Rush's use of scientific evidence in "The Effects of Ardent Spirits Upon Man" is an example of logos. Not only should facts be provable, they must also come from a trustworthy and reliable source.the bible, their underlying messages appealed to pathos.The example the quotation uses, hit-run accidents, is an appeal to pathos, because it conjures up the image of an innocent victim who is left injured while the driver speeds away.It began with the simplest and most innocuous seeming question and answer: "What is temperance? The questions and answers become more specific and emotionally charged throughout the pamphlet, ending with question and answers like "How can we work successfully against intemperance?bible essay questionsThe Puritans placed great emphasis on preaching and most "insisted that 'human authorities' have no place in sermons" (Emerson 45).Nicholson then took his appeal to pathos a step further, claiming that those who do not actively fight intemperance were supporting the enemy, (hence the title of the pamphlet "Don't Unwittingly Join the Enemy's Forces") and therefore neglecting their responsibilities as American Patriots and Christians.How could individuals and communities achieve success and salvation?According to this pamphlet, American society suffered more from intemperance than all other forms of sin and claimed alcohol was a poison and "the cause of three fourths of all of the disease and proverty [sic] and sorrow and crime in our land" (2).Nicholson, like many Temperance leaders, described the struggle against liquor as a second American revolution; first Americans freed themselves from the British, now they must free themselves from alcohol.Scientists and doctors like Rush felt that the American public needed to be made aware of the health hazards inherent in alcohol consumption.For example, "The Cost of Beer" addressed pathos by claiming that alcohol consumption leads to noise, broils, stupidity and drunkenness. For example, one of the section headings of "Do you want a better rating? While the scientific evidence was impressive because it drew upon information and resources that may otherwise have been inaccessible to many readers, these more practical arguments were compelling because they were familiar, appealing to a deeply-ingrained value, the Protestant work ethic.Industriousness was a virtue with positive outcomes in this life and the afterlife.Following in the tradition of Puritan preaching, Nicholson explained that the fight against intemperance was not merely a human endeavor, but God's mission: "God expects every man and every woman to do his or her duty…" (5) He conflated divine and earthly aspirations, saying that people can take part in God's mission by voting against pro-liquor legislation.Although some religious pamphlets did contain appeals to logos in their structure or actual arguments, the overarching rhetorical technique in this form of propaganda was pathos.God would punish all, saint and sinner alike, with disease, drought, famine and other misfortunes if a community did not reform its sinners.Many posters referred to scientific studies and statistical information, citing medical and scientific experts for ethos. "Alcohol: Practical Facts for Practical People"), the headings of the posters purported indisputable information.The morals and values that the religious revivals of the Temperance and Prohibition Eras promoted were steeped in Puritan ideology. The original Puritans criticized the corruption in the Church of England and demanded a return to religious purity.In this paper I will address these questions by discussing the rhetorical methods used in Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda. Rorabaugh cited the American Tract Society as one example: by 1851 the Society had distributed nearly five million temperance pamphlets (196).The underlying message of many of the scientific pamphlets was that an individual must know all the facts in order to make an informed decision. These titles in the form of rhetorical questions likely piqued readers' interest, and, as in the case of "The Cost of Beer," these pamphlets intertwined logical, moral and emotional appeals. " read "Mere Physical Fitness Is Not All" and included the following quotations: Physical fitness is a farce without self-control, judgment, and discretion, which are the three qualities of mind first to be dulled by and made incompetent by the use of alcohol. Haven Emerson One of the effects of alcohol is to interfere with the coordination of nerve and muscle. Like "The Cost of Beer," these three pamphlets addressed pathos by discussing social as well as physical health, an argument which hearkened to the Puritan idea of social welfare. " stated: Experiment shows that drinking but one small bottle of beer or one glass of wine may impair a man's driving capacity…Scientific Pamphlets Scientific pamphlets presented facts and logical arguments against drinking alcohol, while religious pamphlets drew directly upon Christian doctrine, often citing biblical reasons for temperance."Christian Temperance Catechism" took a more step by step approach, using a series of questions and answers which drew on Christian Doctrine and sometimes included quotations from the scriptures.Not all Religious pamphlets utilized a logos format to fight temperance.Fundamentalist preachers like Billy Sunday told Americans that "the path to heaven ran through a literal reading of the Bible" (335).Individual safety, however, was not the primary concern. bible essay questions The early twentieth century pamphlet "Don't Unwittingly Join The Enemy's Forces" is a clear appeal to pathos.Pamphlets like "The Cost of Beer (1880s)" and "A Way to Make Money - And a Better Way (early 1900s)" discussed the personal and social expenses of drinking.Although these publications came in a variety of forms and styles, they all used two fundamental rhetorical techniques: logos and pathos.Why did later propaganda continue to use Rush and Belknap's two-fold argument against alcohol consumption? Rorabaugh, author of the 1979 book The Alcoholic Republic, wrote "Temperance reformers…flooded America with propaganda" (196).Although the terms scientific and religious seem to translate directly in logos and pathos, both types of propaganda used a mixture of rational and emotional appeals to promote abstinence from alcohol.Logos is an appeal to logic; it includes scientific evidence, statistics, facts and other provable forms of information.The names of the associations distributing these pamphlets, such as the Scientific Temperance Federation of Boston, added to this air of scientific credibility.Individuals controlled their final destinies: salvation for the righteous and eternal damnation for the sinners, however, the Puritan covenant held the entire community responsible for sinners in this life.The second rhetorical technique employed by anti-liquor propaganda is pathos or appeals to emotion.As James Morone wrote in his recent book, Hellfire Nation: The Politics of Sin in American History, "With preachers announcing that the millennium lay at hand, men and women began to swear off hard spirits; the yearning for perfection drew them until they were pledging total abstinence" (284).As in a crusade, there was a clearly defined enemy in Nicholson's address.Religious Pamphlets Religious pamphlets used Christine Doctrine, especially references to the Bible, as the foundation for their argument against alcohol consumption.Rush's article drew upon ideas from a century earlier; at the beginning of the eighteenth century, medical practitioners began taking a more scientific approach to medicine.Not long after Rush began writing about alcohol's detrimental effects on moral and physical health, he began a correspondence with the Boston Minister Jeremy Belknap.Posters In many ways, Temperance and Prohibition Era posters offered a condensed version of the scientific and religious pamphlets, presenting their most striking and compelling arguments through images and sound bytes.The Puritans' emphasis on the importance of hard work developed into what it commonly known as the "Protestant work ethic" (Morone 15).At the end of his essay, Rush described the moral evils that resulted from the use of distilled spirits such as fraud, theft, uncleanliness and murder (Runes 339).Prohibition provided political backing and legitimacy for the religious revivals of the early twentieth century.According to the Puritans, the answer lay in education, discipline and hard work.Directly quoting the bible was taken from the Puritan tradition where "emphasis is nearly always on the Bible, which they [the Puritans] saw in sharp contrast to tradition and to merely human ideas and usages" (Emerson 46). bible essay questions Most pamphlets also established their ethos or credibility by citing the research and conclusions of experts, including doctors and scientists.Nicholson not only criticized his opposition, the "wets" or anti-Temperance supporters, he vilified them.Roughly a century later, in the 1910s, there was conservative religious revival in the United States.The physician and the minister soon became collaborators, using a mixture of scientific and moral claims in their fight against the consumption of alcoholic beverages.In 1805, Benjamin Rush, a physician from Philadelphia, wrote an essay titled "The Effects of Ardent Spirits Upon Man".What made Rush and Belknap's writing compelling and persuasive for many Americans?Taken from an address given by Bishop Nicholson of the Methodist Episcopal Church, this pamphlet draws upon the Puritan tradition of preaching.These religious revivals were steeped in Puritan moral codes which in turn served as the basis for the underlying ideology of antiliquor propaganda.Titles such as "Alcohol: Practical Facts for Practical People" and "Answers to Favorite Wet Arguments," both from the early 1900s, reinforced the idea that these pamphlets contained factual, objective truth.I found five major categories of Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda: scientific pamphlets, religious pamphlets, posters, children's pamphlets and the fifth category, songs and poems.Using examples of these five forms of propaganda, I will discuss how Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda used logos and pathos and why these rhetorical techniques were effective.Puritans defined the home as the primary place of instruction and saw parents as the most important moral models and instructors for children.In his address Bishop Nicholson appealed to deeply held American values and Puritan morals, describing intemperance as a threat to democracy and morality.The authority justifying and supporting this fight was not mere human beings, but God.Nicholson inspired pathos by describing those who protested temperance as hateful, unprincipled and criminal men with unworthy motives. Not only was the fight against intemperance "the greatest struggle since the Civil War for the effectuation of Democracy" (2), it was a "life and death struggle with the greatest single evil of the ages…the most unprincipled, the most unscrupulous, and the most Satanic forces possible to conceive" (5).For over a century, Americans argued for abstinence from alcohol using a combination of scientific and moral reasons.By learning and by showing others how the use of intoxicants ruins soul and body" (8).Religious Revivals in the 1800s and Early 1900s Widespread religious fervor was a central feature of the Temperance and Prohibition eras.For example, "Christian Temperance Catechism" mentioned alcohol as a major source of suffering in society, both spiritual and physical.In the early nineteenth century, a religious revival known as the Second Great Awakening took the nation by storm (284). bible essay questions The Early American Puritan values of individual and communal salvation, hard work and the proper education of children are constant themes in Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda. bible essay questions




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