Culture shock in japan essays - reflective paper topics









culture shock in japan essays

culture shock in japan essaysCulture shock in japan essays -As a consequence, there exist today many versions, translations, and reconstructions of the Rustigielo transcript.It was not until the nineteenth century that his itineraries were corroborated in detail.Therefore, a summary of the background of Venice and China at the time, as well as the events leading to Marco Polo's arrival in China, are included.Instead of narrating the journey of the Polos, the book contains historical observations and detailed descriptions of cultures and geography.The Polo trio looked like strangers to their fellow citizens: they wore bizarre and ragged clothes and spoke in an accented tongue.Rather than agricultural products, their diet consisted of mostly meat.Marco Polo lived in an interesting period in world history.There are further accounts of the trading practices, crafts, manufactured products, plants, animals, minerals, and terrain.Rule succeeded from him to his son Ogedai, then to Mengu Khan.Details that the young Polo observed included regional histories, descriptions of cities, architecture, inhabitants, races, languages and governments.A few years after his return to Venice in 1295, Marco found himself aboard a Venetian ship under the post of gentleman-commander during a regional war between Venice and Genoa.This book serves as an important work on Chinese civilization during Mongol rule.Europe had by now come out of the Dark Ages, a time in which trade and development languished.While in Asia during the voyages to and from China, Marco Polo saw vast numbers of different lands and lifestyles.Kublai Khan, born 1215, the grandson of Ghengis Khan, completed the defeat of the stubborn Southern Sung Dynasty in Southern China.He either forgot to include things in his book, or knowingly omitted them, thinking that they would not be believed.Rustigielo, a citizen of Pisa and fellow prisoner of Marco, took down Marco's story.For example, silk, made from the silkworm, was thought to be a vegetable product or made from bark.When Marco Polo arrived in China, Mongols had recently completed a conquest of the entire country.By the 1250s, Venice had conquered its Greek rival trading capitol of Constantinople (present day Istanbul) with the help of the momentum of the crusades.culture shock in japan essaysEver since, the civilization in the Middle East presented itself as an unfriendly barrier between the two realms.To illustrate the sincerity of his interest in Christianity, Kublai Khan: "signified his pleasure that upon their [the Polos] return they should bring with them, from Jerusalem, some of the Holy Oil from the lamp which is kept burning over the Sepulchre of our Lord Jesus Christ, whom he professed to hold in veneration and to consider as the true God." Kublai Khan's taste for rare religious items would later be shown when he sent to India for a beggar's bowl said to have belonged to Buddha.Le laboratoire est agréé par le Ministère de la Santé pour les divers actes d'AMP (insémination intra-utérine, fécondation in vitro avec ou sans micromanipulation (FIV-ICSI) ou encore la cryoconservation des embryons humains.The earlier mentioned Middle Eastern barrier between Europe and Asia had been broken by the Mongolian expansion.After his death in 1294, the Mongols were expelled from China by the Ming dynasty in 1368.In fact the years of Mongol rule had a surprisingly small impact on Chinese culture: "Despite this century of contact, things foreign remained superficial in China, as did the Mongol conquerors themselves." For this reason, Marco Polo's observation of a China under Mongol rule will still provide much information into Chinese civilization.Far from being hailed as a daring adventurer and enlightening explorer, the phrase 'It's a Marco Polo' came to denote an exaggerated tale.His book boasts that: "If you put together all the Christians in the world, with their Emperors and their Kings, the whole of these Christians, - aye, and throw in the Saracens to boot, - would not have such power, or be able to do so much as this Kublai, who is Lord of all the Tartars [Mongols] in the world." Unlike the Chinese farmers, Mongols lived a nomadic lifestyle out of portable tents.Fortunately, there is one historical document that offers such an account: the text of Marco Polo's journeys in Asia.And with it all my travels' history: Wherein of antres vast, and deserts idle, rough quarries, rocks and hills, whose heads touch heaven, It was my hint to speak - Othello, I. The Middle Ages represents a unique period in world history.Yet more so than this, that the ethnocentric European mind refused to entertain the notion that a civilization larger and more advanced than its own existed seems the most likely reason for the rejection of Polo's story.Marco Polo's story also came to encourage further exploration of the world: a well-read edition of Marco Polo's book was taken by Christopher Columbus on his first voyage to the New World.It is said that their own family neither recognized nor acknowledged them due to their foreign appearance.This was in the early 1200s, before the Mongolian conquest of Imperial China; none of the friars traveled as far as east the Chinese civilization.This left the way open for the first merchants to challenge the uncertainties to the East and introduce European trade in Asia.Crocodiles and coconuts had never been seen before by most Europeans, and were more easily ascribed to the product of one Venetian's overactive imagination than taken as fact.The empire of Kublai Khan was one of the largest kingdoms to ever exist.His Venetian upbringing gave him a unique perspective on Asian civilization.It will be shown how Marco Polo's accounts can be used to re-examine the history of China. D., after an absence of twenty-four years, Maffeo, Nicolo, and Marco Polo returned to their hometown of Venice, Italy.In addition to observations of exotic wildlife, descriptions of the technological advancements of Chinese civilization, such as the use of paper currency, were staunchly rejected. culture shock in japan essays Such a diverse and detailed account of the lands that he journeyed earned Polo the name 'the father of modern anthropology.' At first, the places that Polo's book tells of were too strange for the Western mind to accept.Most information had been passed down from the time of Ancient Greek civilization during the time of Alexander the Great.Brothers Nicolo and Maffeo Polo, merchants of Venice and members of its great council, left their trading station in Constantinople in 1260, crossed the Black Sea to the Crimean peninsula, and traveled to Western Russia, all for trade purposes.After its isolated development into a highly organized society, China came to be constantly threatened by tribes of so-called "barbarians" to the North.Venice at the time was a bustling town, thriving with trade.Marco, having left Venice as a young man of 17, was now 41 years old. Having spent so much of his life in the Orient, Marco must have experienced an extreme culture shock upon returning to his homeland.The Polo brothers found their way home blocked by a war that had broken out for the Caucasus region between two grandsons of Ghengis Khan.Ghengis Khan was the founder of the Mongol dynasty.Although many records of Chinese history exist from within the culture, an outsider's perspective on Chinese civilization would yield further information.Mongols were expert and highly organized horsemen and warriors. Due to scarcity of water in the Mongolian Steppe, they did not believe in bathing.Fearing for his historical reputation, friends of Marco Polo even asked him to recant his story on his deathbed in 1323.Europe was awakening from the Dark Ages in a time of religious crusades and was quickly expanding trade areas.They were introduced to Kublai Khan, who was eager for more cultural expansion and trusted foreigners more than the Chinese.Europe had come to think of itself as the center of civilization, and this belief was difficult to change.The vast size of the domain of Kublai Khan, which covered most of East Asia, greatly impressed Marco Polo.Because of the high status of foreigners, the Polos were able to find themselves posts as trusted advisors to Kublai Khan.Kublai Khan assumed the throne in 1260, founded his capitol found in Peking in 1263, and ruled all of China after 1279.For example, Kublai Khan maintained the practice of Confucianism, but made efforts to halt the use of the Chinese civil service examination system.In the end, the Mongol Empire was too large to maintain a stable rule.It was during this period that Marco found the time to dictate, possibly with the help of notes taken during his voyage, the story of his years abroad. culture shock in japan essays Southern Chinese were viewed as the lowest in the social system because of their stubborn resistance to the Mongol invasion.Polo's book, entitled , covers the area from Constantinople to Japan to Siberia to Africa.For this reason Marco Polo's accounts can be used to re-examine the history of China.Polo refused, reportedly saying, 'I have not written down the half of those things which I saw.' Indeed, several wonders of Chinese civilization, such as the Great Wall, are not mentioned in Polo's book.Marco Polo was one of the very few people to observe this period in traditional China through the eyes of a European.It is important to understand the perspective that Marco Polo had on Asian civilization.Polo's book offered many geographic contributions concerning the layout of the land of Asia.A series of Catholic friars were the first to bring back factual reports of the Mongolian empire.Venice, a trading city on the Mediterranean, profited from many ship building contracts for the crusades.In contrast, Chinese civilization had very deep roots, but at the time was under Mongol rule.Up until this time, only fables existed about the far away land of China.Kublai Khan's reign was an uneasy rule, as he had to control the discontent of many rival groups, deal with failed invasions of Japan, put down rebellions, and defend attacks from more northern tribes.The Mongolian invasion of Southern China took longer than most victories of the Mongolian army, which swept across virtually all of Asia, from Hungary to Siberia to Vietnam.Being so far away from home, the Polo brothers realized that their roles at this time were more as ambassadors than as merchants.Mongol rule of China established four social classes: the Mongols who ruled the country, non-Chinese aides to the Mongols, Northern Chinese, and lastly, the Southern Chinese.During the time of Mongol rule in China, most of Chinese culture still survived, although control of the government was temporarily handed over to foreigners.Eager for more trading prospects, and to make the connections that would ensure a safe journey home, they accepted the invitation and traveled to the Khan's court in China, where they arrived in 1265.They decided to take a roundabout way home, proceeding southeast.The Sung Dynasty of China had collapsed and had been run over by the descendants of Ghengis Khan.The book was dictated in prison and copied by hand, as the technology of mass printing had not yet immigrated to Europe from China. culture shock in japan essays Therefore, a summary of the background of Venice and China at the time, as well as the events leading to Marco Polo's arrival in China, are included. culture shock in japan essays

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