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british traditions and customs essay

british traditions and customs essayBritish traditions and customs essay -Wearing hijab came to symbolize not the inferiority of the culture in comparison to western ways, but its uniqueness and superiority.In the Middle Ages numerous laws were developed which most often placed women at a greater disadvantage than in earlier times.Moroccan scholar Fatima Mernissi remembers the fight her mother had with her father about replacing her heavier traditional veil with "a tiny triangular black veil made of sheer silk chiffon. It should be stressed that for many women it was not the fact of wearing the veil that was the issue, but that the veil symbolized the relegation of women to a secluded world that did not allow them to participate in public affairs...During militant struggles for independence, such as that against the French in Algeria or the British in Egypt, some women purposely kept the veil in defiance of western styles.Feminist consciousness and action may indeed exist in greater measure with the wearer of Islamic dress than with one who wears up-to-date Western style clothes!Turkish elites, for example, mocked women covered in black, calling them "beetles." Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, who began to build a secular nation-state in 1923, denounced the veil, calling it demeaning and a hindrance to civilized nation. Shortly after, in Iran in the 1930s, Reza Shah Pahlevi did, issuing a proclamation banning the veil outright.More recently, increasing attention has been paid to the related question of how the language of the law is to be correctly interpreted.At about the same time, educated women in Turkey began to leave the house unveiled, but still wearing hijab.Philosophical speculation about the nature of law not only is very often shaped by the politics of the time and place of a given theorist but is also carried on with a specific sort of legal system and legal culture in view.Qasim Amin, who in 1899 wrote The Emancipation of Woman, called for new interpretations of the Quran with regard to limited divorce, polygamy, and wearing the veil. Egyptian writer Malak Hifni Nassef worried about women "moving from that dark and familiar state" before they were ready.Some progressive groups, such as the Women's Action Forum (WAF) in Pakistan, explicitly condemn all attempts to impose a dress code on women.The windows are open and their faces are visible." The Middle Ages The veil did not appear as a common rule to be followed until around the tenth century.The section contains primary source accounts on the topic from a variety of times and places.They argue that those who do not conform to it are stigmatized.One commentator, Ibn al-Hajj, claimed this was a good thing because a woman in Cairo would "go out in the streets as if she were a shining bride, walking in the middle of the road and jostling men." He cautioned shop keepers to be careful when a woman came in to buy, "for if she was one of those women dressed up in delicate clothes, exposing her wrists, he should leave the selling transaction and give her his back until she leaves the shop peacefully..." The Nineteenth Century By the second half of the nineteenth century, intellectuals, reformers, and liberals began to denounce the idea of women's protective clothing.Muslims in their first century at first were relaxed about female dress.From that point onward, a more or less continuous history of such reflection can be traced up to the present day.Women activists in the Muslim world are less preoccupied with what women wear than with securing other freedoms such as access to education, better health care for their families, or wider opportunities for work.Traditionally, philosophy of law proceeds by articulating and defending propositions about law that are general and abstract—i.e., that are true not of a specific legal system at a particular time (e.g., the ) or other social conventions.Male leaders of nationalist movements encouraged women to join them and appear more freely in public. In 1910, a young Turkish woman attracted attention by daring to have herself photographed.british traditions and customs essayThere were other reasons for taking up and defending hijab.In December 2001, Nicholas Kristof reported in the New York Times that although Afghan women were no longer require to wear the burqa, they did so anyway.In his dialogue Crito, Plato fictionally cast his teacher, and escaping, thereby disobeying the law.Although the shape and structure of those systems cannot be discussed in any detail here, it should nonetheless be noted that a robust understanding of each of the major theories and texts in the history of philosophy of law requires some acquaintance with the legal systems of the cities and states in which a given theory was developed.Prostitutes and slaves, however, were told not to veil, and were slashed if they disobeyed this law.In areas where Islam was resisted and believers felt threatened, like Indonesia and the Philippines, Muslim women began to dress more conservatively as a way to assert who they were.For many it reflects the belief that they are following God's commandments, are dressing according to "the correct standard of modesty," or simply are wearing the type of traditional clothes they feel comfortable in.Honor depends on a woman remaining chaste; should she be violated in any way, the men of the family risk being seen as weak and perhaps even being ostracized.Women don't share a common style nor have the same reasons for wearing hijab.Following suit were Ibtihaj Kaddura in Lebanon, Adila Abd al-Qudir al-Jazairi in Syria, and much later Habibah Manshari in Tunis. ' But soon the small veil, the litham, became the fashion, with all the nationalists' wives wearing it all over Fez - to gatherings in the mosque and to public celebrations, such as when political prisoners were liberated by the French." Women's organizations also played an important role in transforming dress, although this was a minor issue in their struggle for women's political rights and for legal reforms.Today With the trend to revive or create Islamist movements, women have continued to take up the modest covering of the hijab.For many women, this decree in its suddenness was not liberating but frightening.Women were seen as key elements in achieving changes in public morality and private behavior.Among the lower middle classes it had always tended to be defended in the face of change.In countries beyond Iran in the 1970s, demonstrations and sit-ins appeared over opposition to the required western style dress code for university students and civil servants.Since nomad women rarely veiled, in the early stages of those Islamic countries with nomadic roots, women often were allowed to go unveiled, even in town.In the years of the early Safavid dynasty, women were unveiled, although the custom was changed by late Safavid times.Rather than offering unasked for advice, non-Muslims might educate themselves with regard to local customs and religious belief, and offer support when it is requested by people within the culture itself.For a woman to assume a protective veil and stay primarily within the house was a sign that her family had the means to enable her to do so.In the dialogue Socrates makes the provocative argument, on behalf of the laws of Athens, that since he has received the benefits and protections of living under law for his entire life and has never left the city out of protest, he is obligated either to obey its laws or to persuade the state that they should not be enforced against him. british traditions and customs essay Opposition to Islamic required clothing had never been truly universal.There is no doubt that he has erred grievously against us in decreeing our rights in the past and no doubt that he errs grievously in decreeing our rights now." The Impact of Nationalism The ideas of Qasim Amin reflected those who closely linked the emancipation of women and rejection of veiling to national movements for independence.She rejects the king’s legal authority, saying that even he “could not override the unwritten and unfailing laws given us by the gods.”, varied widely in meaning across contexts, often referring simply to convention or practice.For this group, the changing roles of women in society were important ways to convince the overseas colonial rulers that their subject nations were ready to govern themselves.Yet it was only in the second Islamic century that the veil became common, first used among the powerful and rich as a status symbol.The most dramatic public unveiling was undertaken by Huda Shaarawi in Egypt in 1923.To them this meant abandoning traditional customs, including protective covering and the veil which they saw as a symbol of the exclusion of women from public life and education.It is more common to see women in hijab, loose clothing topped by a type of scarf worn around the head and under the chin.Some refused to leave home for fear of having their veil torn from their face by the police.Although every philosophical theory is in part a product of the time, place, and culture in which it is developed, the philosophy of law is parochial in an additional sense.Although definitions of what this entails vary regionally, many Muslim women cover themselves to some extent in deference to their religion.One was the growing reaffirmation of nation identity and rejection of values and styles seen as western.One way of achieving this, they felt, was to change the status of women.Since he has failed (at his trial) in the latter task, he must respect the laws by obeying their commands, regardless of their content.Following is an excerpted essay from a section in the curriculum unit Women in the Muslim World.A Complex History of the Veil What constitutes modest clothing has changed over time.Most Muslim women today do not wear a full face veil.Revival of Hijab As the century progressed, a revival of veiling and introduction of more modest dress reasserted itself.This group was sensitive about the advances western nations had made, and wanted to push their countries toward a more western-style society.Of equal importance is the stated Qu'ranic principle which requires women to dress modestly in public. british traditions and customs essay Out of familial duty, Antigone flouts the order and buries the body, thereby herself risking punishment by death.As a result, Aristotle theorized about law primarily on the model of general rules of action enacted by legislation and revisable by direct vote or other plebiscitary means.Commonly they argue for women's rights under the supposition of a culture-specific struggle, focusing on the implementation and activation of human rights claimed to be granted by Islam.When the niece of Aishah Bint Abu Bakr (the Prophet’s wife), Aisha bint Talha was asked by her husband Musab to veil her face, she answered, "Since the Almighty hath put on me the stamp of beauty, it is my wish that the public should view the beauty and thereby recognized His grace unto them.On no account, therefore, will I veil myself." As Islam reached other lands, regional practices, including the covering of women, were adopted by the early Muslims.It meant they also could take part in veiled and silent demonstrations, or could hide weapons under long robes.In some periods, such as under the Mamluks in Egypt, repeated decrees were issued, urging strictness in veiling and arguing against the right of women to take part in activities outside their home.The real surge toward donning hijab came with Iran's revolution., especially in its relation to human values, attitudes, practices, and political communities.To take a different example, starting in the 17th century many British (and later other Anglophone) philosophers of law argued for the central importance of judicial institutions for the very existence of a legal system and debated the idea of legal reasoning as a distinct sort of deliberative activity.The latter fact is important, as the kinds of legal systems in Europe and the Anglophone world have varied widely through the last several millennia.Among the Turks, who came into Anatolia as nomads, Ibn Battuta in the fourteenth century saw what he called a "remarkable thing. Not only royal ladies but also wives of merchants and common people will sit in a wagon drawn by horses.Beyond the Near East, the practice of hiding one's face and largely living in seclusion appeared in classical Greece, in the Byzantine Christian world, in Persia, and in India among upper caste Rajput women.'We obey our husbands..is our culture' said a 23-year-old." Most husbands, he wrote, believe the Pashto phrase: 'A woman belongs in the house - or in a grave.' This age-old belief is not exclusive to Afghan culture but, in varying degrees, historically can be found within the ideology of many cultures, including those in the West.She resented men telling women what they should do: "If he orders us to veil, we veil, and if he now demands that we unveil, we unveil.Views about the nature of law often depend upon, and occasionally have contributed to, answers to some of the most-fundamental philosophical questions—for example, regarding the foundations of morality, itself.Some theorists, beginning in the early 20th century, even found it fruitful to think about the nature of law primarily from the point of view of legal professionals such as judges or lawyers.For example, the centrepiece of the legal system of Aristotle’s Athens was a representative legislative body, the , in which a wide variety of political disputes were debated and addressed by statute, while its court system was, though important, very rudimentary by modern standards (it was governed by largely customary procedural rules and administered by ordinary citizens, as there were no judges, lawyers, or other legal professionals during that period).But by Plato’s time it had acquired the more-specific sense of a statute or a proclaimed or written directive that established a standard for human action.The essay provides an historical look at Islamic dress. british traditions and customs essay Moroccan scholar Fatima Mernissi remembers the fight her mother had with her father about replacing her heavier traditional veil with "a tiny triangular black veil made of sheer silk chiffon. It should be stressed that for many women it was not the fact of wearing the veil that was the issue, but that the veil symbolized the relegation of women to a secluded world that did not allow them to participate in public affairs... british traditions and customs essay




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