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ap art history essay grading rubric

ap art history essay grading rubricAp art history essay grading rubric -The district attorney offers to drop the charges, but the Irish community presses forward with the case to ensure that there is no doubt about their protection under the First Amendment's Free Exercise Clause. Philips is argued in the summer of 1813, and the New York State Court rules, "They are protected by the laws and Constitution of this country, in the full and free exercise of their religion, and this court can never countenance or authorize the application of insult to their faith, or of torture to their consciences."Though Connecticut had long allowed "sober dissenting" churches to operate legally in the state and collect tax money, the Congregational Church remains the official state church. Connecticut disestablishes in 1818; in 1833, Massachusetts abolishes a law requiring citizens to belong to a church.A Catholic priest in New York City is arrested for refusing to disclose the identity of a person who reported during confession that he stole and then returned jewelry.Madison later defends his action: "I was always careful to make the Proclamations absolutely indiscriminate, and merely recommendatory; or rather mere designations of a day, on which all who thought proper might unite in consecrating it to religious purposes, according to their own faith and forms." An annual day of prayer is not made official until the mid-20th century and continues to be controversial.The seven states that follow Massachusetts -- Maryland, South Carolina, New Hampshire, Virginia, New York, North Carolina and Rhode Island -- also recommend amendments.As the Mormon faith gains followers, its adherents experience contentious and sometimes violent confrontations with their neighbors.Baptists from Danbury, Conn., send Jefferson a letter of congratulations on his election and express their hope that his views on religious liberty will soon extend to their home state. 1, 1802, Baptist minister John Leland personally delivers a giant wheel of cheese to the White House to celebrate Jefferson's election as a victory for religious freedom.In 1784, Patrick Henry introduces a bill that would impose a tax to support churches but would allow citizens to designate the church their taxes would support; the following year James Madison writes "Memorial and Remonstrance," a widely circulated pamphlet that makes a strong case against state-supported religion.In Boston, they establish the Massachusetts Bay Colony and strive to create a model Christian commonwealth.Outspoken, opinionated and well versed in the Bible, Hutchinson accuses the ministers of the Massachusetts Bay Colony of teaching false doctrine and asserts that God has spoken to her directly -- a claim considered heresy in Puritan theology.Ministers such as George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards encourage individuals to make an immediate, intense and personal connection with the Divine.Banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony, Roger Williams establishes a colony he names "Providence" in present-day Rhode Island.After emigrating to America, he is ordained in Philadelphia and then moves to New York, where parents have taken many of the city's 12,000 Catholic children out of the public school system.Following the riots, the bishop ends his efforts to reform the public schools and encourages the establishment of separate Catholic schools.Passed in the wake of the Civil War, the 14th Amendment includes a Due Process Clause, which ensures that the protections enshrined in the Bill of Rights are guaranteed under state law. Despite increasing Catholic and Jewish immigration in the late 19th century, the United States remains an overwhelmingly Protestant nation, and the dominant Protestant ethos deeply influences the federal government's policy toward Native Americans.Versed in Christianity as well as Native rituals, Wovoka prophesizes an end to white expansion and preaches clean and honest living.Williams had quarreled with Puritan authorities over their theology, their decision to remain within the Church of England and their failure to pay Native Americans for their land.Catholics and Jews are granted religious toleration in Pennsylvania but are not given the right to vote, a privilege extended only to Protestants.Written by Thomas Jefferson and first submitted in 1779, the Virginia Act for Establishing Religious Freedom proposes ending state support of the Anglican Church.Vashti Mc Collum, a self-described humanist from Champaign, Ill., challenges the practice of allowing students in public schools to attend voluntary religious instruction during school hours, on school property.As long as this country trusts in God, it will prevail."John F.ap art history essay grading rubricOther religions, termed "dissenting religions," do not have freedom of worship.For the first time in Western history, religion and state government are decoupled.It reads: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof..." The first half becomes known as the Establishment Clause; the second is called the Free Exercise Clause. Attacked for his unorthodox religious views, Thomas Jefferson is accused of being an atheist by clergymen aligned with his Federalist opponents, who spread rumors that he will compel citizens to burn their Bibles.In a concurring opinion, Justice Felix Frankfurter argues the purpose of public schools is to promote unity; the release time program makes students aware of their religious differences.The core ritual of his religion is the Ghost Dance, which sweeps across the West and is picked up by Lakota Sioux.He receives an immense tract of land west of the Delaware River from King Charles II (in repayment for a debt owed Penn's father) and establishes the "holy experiment" of Pennsylvania.Days after Protestant preacher Lyman Beecher delivers a fiery sermon in downtown Boston about the threat posed by the rising tide of Catholic immigrants, the Ursuline Convent, a Catholic-run school attended largely by wealthy Protestant young women in Charlestown, Mass., is attacked by a mob and burned.Though the phrase "In God We Trust" had appeared earlier in the nation's history, including on coins minted in the 19th century, the phrase officially becomes the national motto during the Cold War, when the nation confronts the threat of "godless communism." World War II veteran Congressman Charles Bennett (D-Fla.) introduces the bill, stating: "At the base of our freedom is our faith in God and the desire of Americans to live by His will and His guidance.The colony's founding documents include provisions for religious toleration, freedom of the press and statements of equality that include women, but not slaves.The bill is opposed by many who believe religion is essential to the cultivation of a moral citizenry and that religion will wither away without state support.By the time of the Revolutionary War, nine colonies have established state religions.The same day, Jefferson writes a letter of response to the Danbury Baptists in which he invokes the metaphor of a "wall of separation" to describe his views on the ideal church-state relationship.This emphasis on personal choice threatens to undermine the authority of ministers in established churches.As the nation faces the prospect of war with Great Britain, President James Madison recommends a national day of prayer, a practice his predecessor, Thomas Jefferson, refused to endorse.Concerned that the dance poses a potential threat, the Bureau of Indian Affairs orders it banned.While they come to the Nhuew World seeking freedom to worship as they choose, the Puritans do not tolerate dissent.Like the Pilgrims, the English Puritans believe that the Church of England is corrupt.In October, he delivers a petition to the Virginia State Assembly -- signed by 10,000 dissidents -- demanding that Baptists be able to freely worship without fear of prosecution.They see the schools as bigoted against Catholics and object to the use of the Protestant King James version of the Bible.Four days later, riots break out; bricks are thrown through Hughes' windows, and the doors of his house are kicked in. ap art history essay grading rubric The ensuing trial pits fundamentalist orator and three-time presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan against trial attorney Clarence Darrow, a famous criminal lawyer and self-proclaimed agnostic. Mencken gloats, "We killed the son-of-a-bitch." The big city press portrays the trial as a defeat for the fundamentalists.The riots are precipitated by a letter from Philadelphia's Catholic bishop, who requests that Catholic children be allowed to read the Douay-Rheims Catholic Bible rather than the Protestants' King James Version.The document formally severing ties with the British government enshrines the American idea that "liberty" and "freedom" are rights given by God.At the Pine Ridge reservation in North Dakota, federal agents confront a group of Lakota Sioux who practice the dance.Lilburn Boggs orders all Mormons to either be driven from the state or wiped out.Over time Penn's colony attracts Quakers and Anglicans from England; Lutherans, Reformed, Mennonites, Amish and Dunkers from Germany; and Presbyterians from Scotland.The sixth state to ratify the document, Massachusetts is the first to suggest constitutional amendments guaranteeing individual rights, including religious liberty.In the charged aftermath of the violence, Missouri Gov.Hutchinson's righteous insistence gets her in trouble with the religious and political authorities, including Governor John Winthrop.Three major communities are built and then abandoned in Ohio, Missouri and Illinois before the Mormons ultimately settle in Utah.Section 1 of the amendment includes the following: "No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."Convicted of bigamy, George Reynolds, a Mormon living in Utah, argues that his religious duty requires him to marry more than one woman and that his rights are protected under the Free Exercise Clause. United States, the court makes a distinction between religious beliefs, which are protected, and religiously motivated actions, which can be regulated. Convinced that "civilization and the gospel go hand in hand," the government authorizes religious institutions to establish boarding schools to assimilate Native American children.The personal attacks reinforce Jefferson's conviction that church and state must be kept separate.The Constitutional Convention submits a draft of the Constitution to the states for ratification.Williams' colony of Providence guarantees freedom of conscience and becomes a haven for religious dissidents.Catholic churches and homes are burned by Protestant nativists, soldiers are called in, and both rioters and soldiers are killed.Following his arrest for preaching without a license, Baptist Jeremiah Moore preaches to crowds through the bars of his jail cell.Its inhabitants are required by law to be members of the Anglican Church and to pay taxes to support the church.Toleration gives civil authorities the power to decide whether to allow specific groups freedom to worship.Nearly all of his candidates win, and in 1842 the state passes a bill ending religious instruction in public schools.Neither can force a person to go to or to remain away from church against his will or force him to profess a belief or disbelief in any religion. In the words of Jefferson, the clause against establishment of religion by law was intended to erect 'a wall of separation between church and state.'" Despite the ringing endorsement of Jefferson's metaphor, the court rules that reimbursement of Catholic parents does not violate the First Amendment. ap art history essay grading rubric Straining under the heavy-handed policies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, some Native Americans rally around the visions of a Paiute shaman, Wovoka, also known as Jack Wilson.Henry's bill is defeated; Madison reintroduces Jefferson's bill, and it passes in 1786.Thomas Jefferson, then a Virginia state assemblyman, receives the petition and joins forces with the Baptists to propose the disestablishment of the Anglican Church in Virginia.Mc Collum sues the local school board; her family is subjected to harassment and hate mail; the family cat is lynched.Municipality that the Bill of Rights applies only to the federal government, not the states. Reynolds marks the first time the Supreme Court addresses the issue of free exercise.In 1624, King James officially charters Virginia as a royal colony.Charged with sedition, she is tried, banished and excommunicated.The First Amendment, guaranteeing religious liberty and other rights, is drafted by James Madison. shipping interests from pirates off the Barbary Coast, the Treaty of Peace and Friendship assures the Muslim state of Tripoli that the U. The presidential election of 1800 is one of the most bitter and bruising contests in American history.Unlike the Pilgrims, they do not break with the church, but remain a part of it.Hundreds from both sides die in the fighting; more than half of the Catholic priests are murdered. The son of a successful British admiral, William Penn is imprisoned six times for being a Quaker in Anglican England.In the Court of General Sessions, Irish lawyer William Sampson argues that compelling the priest to break his vow of secrecy in the sacrament of the confessional would go against the new nation's basic principles.Citing his First Amendment rights, he appeals all the way to the Supreme Court, which rules in Permoli v.After losing the vote, he turns to politics, urging Catholics to vote for his slate of candidates in the 1841 state elections.In 1675, 47 Pueblo leaders are imprisoned in Santa Fe for sorcery; three are publicly hanged. 10, 1680, 2,000 Pueblos rise up in what becomes known as the Pueblo Revolt.As the Baptist faith gains popularity, Virginia authorities begin to crack down.Later advocates for religious freedom argue that religious liberty should be defined as a natural right rather than as a right afforded by a civil government.John Scopes, a young biology teacher, is arrested after defying a Tennessee law that bans the teaching of evolution in the classroom.Archbishop John Hughes is born in Ireland, where he witnesses oppression of Catholics by the country's ruling Protestant minority.In 1838, non-Mormons in Missouri try to prevent church members from voting, leading to a bloody melee.The first major mass movement in American history, the Great Awakening changes the way people experience God. ap art history essay grading rubric Madison later defends his action: "I was always careful to make the Proclamations absolutely indiscriminate, and merely recommendatory; or rather mere designations of a day, on which all who thought proper might unite in consecrating it to religious purposes, according to their own faith and forms." An annual day of prayer is not made official until the mid-20th century and continues to be controversial. ap art history essay grading rubric




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