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case study research methodology yin

case study research methodology yinCase study research methodology yin -written texts etc), with the assumption being that the codes of interest have already been discovered and described beforehand (RYAN & BERNARD, 2000, p.785).[What is the contribution qualitative content analysis can make as a method of text analysis (for interpreting interview transcripts and other documents) in case study research?[] 2.1 Cognitive interest and research question Since its development in the beginning of the 1980s, MAYRING's qualitative content analysis has achieved popularity (TITSCHER, MEYER, WODAK & VETTER, 2000, p.62).[] Last but not least, a major issue in designing case study research is the maximization of conditions related to design quality, i.e. YIN, 2003a, pp.19, 33-39): A detailed explanation of these concepts can be found in numerous textbooks on social science methods (e.g.However, when analyzing the frequency of keywords considerable deviations from the citation analysis turned up: a marked dominance of qualitative (and also quantitative) content analysis (TITSCHER et al., 2000, pp.219-221). STAKE (2000) concurs, suggesting that case studies have become "one of the most common ways to do qualitative inquiry" (p.435). Besides, it was claimed that case studies lack in rigor and reliability and that they do not address the issue of generalizability in contrast to quantitative methods (HARTLEY, 1994, p.208).(2000), content analysis is "the longest established method of text analysis among the set of empirical methods of social investigation" (p.55).BRYMAN, 2004, pp.454ff.; CRESWELL, 2003, pp.208ff.; JICK, 1979, p.602; cf. Besides, in the course of the last century (especially the second half of it), the development of qualitative methods showed impressive advances and results, thus helping to gain more acceptance not only in the field of social research (cf. As the following sections will show, the combination and mixing of different research methods bears an enormous potential for the advancement of social research. Research Question, Aim and Structure of the Paper This section presents the research question underlying the analysis and discussion in the following sections and gives a short outline of the paper, explaining its aim, structure and scope.In such a setting, a case study would be an one (ibid.).As another fundamental characteristics he puts forth that "you do not start out with ] 3.3.2 Analyzing case study evidence According to HARTLEY (1994, 2004) data collection and analysis are "developed together in an iterative process," which can be a strength as it allows for theory development which is grounded in empirical evidence (p.220; p.329).For an extensive review and analysis of case study research reference should be made to the state-of-the-art literature (e.g.In this respect, it is important to note that case studies have an important function in generating hypotheses and building theory (cf. EISENHARDT, 1989; HARTLEY, 1994, p.211; HARTLEY, 2004, p.325).However, these issues will be ] 3.3.1 Collecting evidence According to YIN (2003a) there are six possible sources of evidence for case studies: documents, archival records, interviews, direct observation, participant-observation, and physical artifacts (pp.83, 85-96).Besides, due to the limited scope of this paper and my own research interests, the focus will mainly be on organizational and managerial research, even though both qualitative content analysis as well as case study research can be used in a much wider range of research fields (see also Sections 3. YIN, we can say that "[u]sing case studies for implies, the subject of interest here are research case studies.[] Finally, checking the findings with the case study participants can be a valuable part of the analysis and can enhance validity (HARTLEY, 2004, p.330).[] Before we take a look at the individual steps in the process of conducting case study research, it is now time to deliver a definition of what case study research actually is.This will help to refine the data collection plans with respect to both the content of the data and the procedures to be followed.[] YIN (2003a) maintains that data analysis consists of "examining, categorizing, tabulating, testing, or otherwise recombining both quantitative and qualitative evidence to address the initial propositions of a study" (p.109).This is of course only a very superficial and over-simplified assumption of the distinction between quantitative and qualitative research methods.Bible interpretations), early newspaper analysis, graphological procedures and even Freudian dream analysis can be seen as early precursors of content analysis (MAYRING, 2000a, [6]).In fact, the theoretical basis of the first moves towards analyses of contents was Harold D.case study research methodology yinLater, the concept was extended to include all those procedures which operate with categories, but which seek at least to quantify these categories by means of a frequency survey of classifications (ibid.).However, going into greater detail concerning these issues would be beyond the scope of this paper.Then, a basic introduction to (qualitative) content analysis as an interpretation and analysis method for text documents—especially the transcripts of qualitative interviews—and other data material is given, with the focus on Philipp MAYRING's approach to qualitative content analysis.This step is called reporting, with numerous forms of reports being available, and the typical case study report being a lengthy narrative (YIN, 1981, p.64, 2003a, p.141).Besides, theory development does not only facilitate the data collection phase of the ensuing case study, the appropriately developed theory also is the level at which the generalization of the case study results will occur.NEUMAN (1997) goes even further by stating that there are basically two categories of data collection techniques: quantitative and qualitative (p.30).It is "essentially a coding operation," with coding being "the process of transforming raw data into a standardized form" (BABBIE, 2001, p.309).However, great efforts have also been made to reconcile both sides (or, where not possible, at least to soothe the dispute), thus providing the opportunity to exploit the advantages of both approaches and opening the way for synergy effects (e.g.By whatever methods, we choose to study the case" (STAKE, 2000, p.435). Therefore, a case study cannot be defined through its research methods, but rather in terms of its theoretical orientation and interest in individual cases (HARTLEY, 2004, p.324; STAKE, 2000, p.435).NEUMAN (1997, pp.426ff) states that once a pattern is identified, it is interpreted in terms of a social theory or the setting in which it occurred and that the qualitative researcher moves from the description of a historical event or social setting to a more general interpretation of its meaning.According to YIN (2003a, pp.111-115) there are three general analytic strategies for analyzing case study evidence: He contends that any of these strategies can be used in practicing five specific techniques for analyzing case studies: pattern matching, explanation building, time-series analysis, logic models, and cross-case synthesis (YIN, 2003a, pp.109, 116-137).These attempts share the conception that qualitative and quantitative methods should be viewed as complementary rather than as rival camps (JICK, 1979, p.602).Then, a basic introduction to (qualitative) content analysis as an interpretation method for qualitative interviews and other data material is given. Case Study Research 3.1 The case study as a research strategy 3.2 Designing case studies 3.3 Conducting case studies 3.3.1 Collecting evidence 3.3.2 Analyzing case study evidence 3.3.3 Reporting case studies 4.LASSWELL's model of mass communication, and later on also the news transmission model of SHANNON and WEAVER (TITSCHER et al., 2000, pp.56-57).As matter of fact, case study as a research strategy comprises an all-encompassing method, which means that a number of methods may be used—either qualitative, quantitative or both (cf. Besides, case study research design can be used with other research strategies to address related research questions in different phases of a research project, and yet a further strategy would be to start with exploratory case study research and then to test the emerging findings in wider survey-based research (HARTLEY, 1994, p.215, 2004, pp.326-327).[] Since this paper only aims to serve as the starting point for a more thorough discussion of the application of qualitative content analysis for case study research, the scope is rather narrow. STAKE (2000) concurs, suggesting that case studies have become "one of the most common ways to do qualitative inquiry," but at the same time concedes that "they are neither new nor essentially qualitative" (p.435).also above, Section 3.1, and also HARTLEY, 2004, p.331).First, case study research as a research strategy within qualitative social research is briefly presented.GILLHAM, 2000; GOMM, HAMMERSLEY & FOSTER, 2000; HAMEL, 1993; STAKE, 1995; YIN, 2003a).At the same time he seeks to encourage the integration of qualitative content analysis into the important step of data analysis in case study research. case study research methodology yin According to them, classical content analysis "comprises techniques for reducing texts to a unit-by-variable matrix and analyzing that matrix quantitatively to test hypotheses" and the researcher can produce a matrix by applying a set of codes to a set of qualitative data (e.g.The main points of case study research are presented only as far as they seem to be relevant for the analysis of the research question (see 2.1).[] 3.3.3 Reporting case studies In a final step—or a final series of steps—the results and findings of a case study need to be brought to closure.However, depending on the depth and range of the extant literature, the initial focus of the case study may be quite focused or broad and open-ended.[] On the one hand, this definition puts forth the main points of what qualitative research is about, but it also demonstrates how it is positioned or tries to position itself in contrast to quantitative research.In this sense, the case study […] does not represent a 'sample', and in doing a case study, your goal will be to generalize theories (analytical generalization) and not to enumerate frequencies (statistical generalization)" (p.10).[] Case studies are widely used in organizational studies and across the social sciences, and there is some suggestion that the case study method is increasingly being used and with a growing confidence in the case study as a rigorous research strategy in its own right (cf. However, there have also been traditional prejudices against case study strategy in such a way that case studies have been viewed as a less desirable form of inquiry for instance (cf. [] The author argues in favor of both case study research as a research strategy—trying to disprove the critiques just mentioned—and qualitative content analysis as a method of examination of data material.[] Furthermore, for case studies, theory development as part of the design phase is essential, whether the ensuing case study's purpose is to develop or test theory, with theory development taking place prior to the collection of any case study data being an essential step in doing case studies (YIN, 2003a, pp.28-29).Indeed, the case study's unique strength is "its ability to deal with a full variety of evidence—documents, artifacts, interviews, and observations" (YIN, 2003a, p.8).This has led to the appearance of mixed method approaches and the use of triangulation (e.g. [] This paper also aims at helping to overcome the strict contraposition of qualitative and quantitative research.One main characteristic of this dispute seems to be the dichotomous way in which qualitative and quantitative research (methods) were presented as well as the resulting strict contraposition of the two (cf. CASSELL and SYMON (1994) for instance give the following list of defining characteristics for qualitative research: "a focus on interpretation rather than quantification; an emphasis on subjectivity rather than objectivity; flexibility in the process of conducting research; an orientation towards process rather than outcome; a concern with context—regarding behaviour and situation as inextricably linked in forming experience; and finally, an explicit recognition of the impact of the research process on the research situation" (p.7).Or, put more generally: What is the contribution of using qualitative content analysis as an interpretation and analysis method for developing case studies?(2000) in their bibliometric survey of the prominence of methods text analysis come to a similar conclusion as far as method literature citations are concerned (pp.217-218).[] According to BABBIE (2001), content analysis can be defined as "the study of recorded human communications" (p.304).] 2.2 Aim, structure and scope of the paper This paper aims at exploring and discussing the possibilities of applying qualitative content analysis as a (text) interpretation method in case study research.However, this qualitatively oriented approach to content analysis—a discipline traditionally dominated by quantitative methods—has mainly been discussed and used within the German-speaking scientific community and does not seem to have attracted as much attention internationally as it actually deserves.BRANNEN, 1992, pp.3-5; BRYMAN, 2004, pp.452-454; HAMMERSLEY, 1992, pp.39-41; KELLE, 2001, [1]-[5]; TASHAKKORI & TEDDLIE, 1998, pp.3-13).Case studies do not imply the use of a particular type of evidence and they can be done using either qualitative or quantitative evidence (or both) (EISENHARDT, 1989, pp.534-535; YIN, Finally, YIN (2003a, pp.78-80) recommends conducting a pilot case study as a final preparation for data collection.Depending on the type of research question posed, the extent of control an investigator has over actual behavioral events, and the degree of focus on contemporary as opposed to historical events, there are also —with the distinction between intrinsic and instrumental (a collective case study is instrumental study extended to several cases) addressing the degree to which the focus is on the unique or the generalizable features of the case research (pp.437-438, cf. As a matter of interest, a common concern about case studies put forward by their critics is that they provide little basis for scientific generalization (YIN, 2003a, p.10).the criteria for judging the quality of research designs. ATTESLANDER, 2003; BRYMAN, 2004; CRESWELL, 2003; DIEKMANN, 2003) and would go beyond the scope of this paper. case study research methodology yin The author argues in favor of both case study research as a research strategy and qualitative content analysis as a method of examination of data material and seeks to encourage the integration of qualitative content analysis into the data analysis in case study research. The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research 5.1 Mixed methods and triangulation 5.2 Case study research and qualitative content analysis 5.2.1 Openness and ability to deal with complexity 5.2.2 Theory-guided analysis 5.2.3 Integration of context 5.2.4 Integration of different material/evidence 5.2.5 Integration of quantitative steps of analysis 5.3 Limitations of qualitative content analysis 6. There has been an ongoing debate on the appropriateness of different approaches and methods in social research.More will be said on the topic of coding in Sections 4.2.2.3 and 4.2.3.HARTLEY (2004), for instance, states that case study research "consists of a detailed investigation, often with data collected over a period of time, of phenomena, within their context," with the aim being "to provide an analysis of the context and processes which illuminate the theoretical issues being studied" (p.323).The presentation will focus on qualitative content analysis as it was developed by Philipp MAYRING in Germany (see Section 4.2.2), with other approaches being touched only marginally (see Section 4.2.2.3).[] 3.2 Designing case studies According to HARTLEY (2004) research design is "the argument for the logical steps which will be taken to link the research question(s) and issues to data collection, analysis and interpretation in a coherent way" (p.326, cf. YIN (2003a, p.21-28) identifies the following five components of research design as especially important for case studies: Subsequently, it will be helpful to consider whether the case study will be exploratory, descriptive or explanatory and a key decision to be made is whether the research will be based on a single case study or on multiple cases (HARTLEY, 2004, p.326).the possibilities of applying qualitative content analysis as a (text) interpretation method in case study research.Therefore and because the case study strategy is ideally suited to exploration of issues in depth and following leads into new areas of new constructions of theory, the theoretical framework at the beginning may not be the same one that survives to the end (HARTLEY, 2004, p.328).These must be distinguished from teaching case studies—i.e.YIN's (2003a) answer to this: "case studies […] are generalizable to theoretical propositions and not to populations or universes.The data may then be organized around certain topics, key themes or central questions, and finally the data need to be examined to see how far they fit or fail to fit the expected categories (ibid.).While the first means collecting data in the form of numbers the second means collecting data in the form of words or pictures (ibid.).[] The development of content analysis is fundamentally connected to the development of mass media and international politics and content analysis has gained significance in the first half of the twentieth century with the dramatic expansion of mass communication (MAYRING, 2002, p.114; TITSCHER et al., 2000, p.55).Finally, YIN (2003a, pp.13-14) offers a more detailed and technical definition of case studies: .But even before that, different approaches to analysis and comparison of texts in hermeneutic contexts (e.g.Or, put differently: "[c]ase study is not a methodological choice but a choice of what is to be studied.This role of theory has been characterized by YIN (2003a) as "analytic generalization" and has been contrasted with a different way of generalizing results, known as "statistical generalization" (pp.31-32, cf.[] 3.1 The case study as a research strategy According to YIN (2003a, p.2) "the distinctive need for case studies arises out of the desire to understand complex social phenomena" because "the case study method allows investigators to retain the holistic and meaningful characteristics of real-life events," such as organizational and managerial processes, for example.[] Moreover, qualitative research methods have often faced acceptance problems and academic and disciplinary resistances, which are partly due to the politics embedded in this field of discourse (cf. DENZIN & LINCOLN, 2000, p.7): qualitative researchers are called journalists, or soft scientists, and their work is termed unscientific, or only exploratory, or subjective.In fact, GLÄSER and LAUDEL (2004) contend that qualitative content analysis is hardly used (p.44) and TITSCHER et al.STAKE (2000, p.436) notes that a "case study is both a process of inquiry about the case and the product of that inquiry," namely the report. Content Analysis This section provides a brief introduction to qualitative content analysis as a (text) analysis method for qualitative social research. case study research methodology yin [] 2.1 Cognitive interest and research question Since its development in the beginning of the 1980s, MAYRING's qualitative content analysis has achieved popularity (TITSCHER, MEYER, WODAK & VETTER, 2000, p.62). case study research methodology yin




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